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BERTHET, Dominique. "Revolutionary Ideologies: Theory of Reflection and Fantasy"
Article published on 21 March 2004
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Thèse doctorat (Nouveau Doctorat) sous la direction de Marc JIMENEZ, Philosophie, [S.l.] : [s.n.] PARIS 1 : 1993

PARIS-SORBONNE-BIU Centrale; PARIS 1-C.Pierre Mendès-France


The XIXth century has witnessed the birth of modern socialism and the emergence of a new concept applied to art: modernity. From that period on, two types of socialism have developed, competed and incessantly argued.

The origin of the conflict dates back to the argument between Marx and Proudhon. Those two forms of socialism, as far as art and aesthetics are concerned, have made different and sometimes contrary propositions. However, the Proudhon, Marx and Engels’ aesthetics have in common the fact that they are ideological, they contemplate art in its direct relation to the social field. Consequently, Marxist and libertarian aesthetics are to differentiate one from the other in the long run.

Anarchist aesthetics have the peculiarity of being numerous and of offering very different approaches towards art. However, they come from statatements that are very distinct from those that founded Marxist aesthetics, the way they showed through social realism and Jdanovism.

Later, in front of what had become state aesthetics, some Marxists turned away from that kind of art to adopt some points of view borrowed from the libertarian aesthetics.

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